PART 1 (10 marks) Atherosclerotic plaque formation
- Describe the step for the formation of an atherosclerotic in the upper branch of the left coronary artery
- Include in your answer the pathological changes at the level of the artery
- Include in your answer the risk factors that would lead to this plaque formation
Rupture of a plaque in the left coronary artery
- Differentiate between a stable and unstable plaque.
A stable adequate is blood flow and the symptoms quickly subside without any damage to the heart and dot not tend to form cloth.
A Unstable plaque is restriction of blood flow in the coronary artery,
- Describe what happens when an unstable plaque rupture
An unstable plaque going to be hemorrhage into the plaque or thrombotic occlusion of the vessel lumen.
- Describe what happens to the contents of a ruptured plaque of upper branch of the left coronary artery. Where could the contents go?
- What happens as it progresses through the coronary circulation?
- What areas of the heart will it affect?
cluding the arteries to the heart.
PART 2 (10 marks)
Hypertension mechanisms and pathophysiology
Describe the risk factors that contribute to hypertension
• Describe how the risk factors contribute to the development of hypertension
salt intake, obesity and insulin resistance, the renin-angiotensin system, and the sympathetic nervous system.
- How do the various components of the autonomic nervous system influence blood pressure?
- Include in your answer the involvement of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system?
- How does the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system influence blood pressure?Renin is secreted from the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidney in response to glomerular under perfusion or a reduced salt intake. It is also released in response to stimulation from the sympathetic nervous system
- How is the diagnosis of hypertension made?
- What are the manifestations related to hypertension?
- Include in your answer target-organ damage
- How do medications act to control blood pressure?
• Include in your answer, what are some non-pharmacological interventions to manage blood pressure, how do they help?