Response #2 Post a response to one peer in your discussion group that provides a clinical example of bronchiolitis and bronchiectasis.
Bronchiolitis and bronchiectasis are two common restrictive lung diseases. Bronchiolitis is defined as inflammation of the small airways also known as the bronchioles. Bronchiolitis is diffuse and causes hypoxemia. It can be caused by inhalation of toxic gases, chronic bronchitis, or airway viral infection. Clinical symptoms include fever, tachypnea, dry cough, and hyperinflated chest and is most common in children. Pulmonary edema will occur with inhalation injuries. Respiratory distress and severe hypoxia will develop within 24 to 72 hours. Antibiotics, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, and chest physical therapy; including humidified air, are used for treatment (McCance & Huether, 2018, p. 1172).
Bronchiectasis is persistent abnormal dilation of the bronchi that may result from a genetic predisposition or be caused by a defect in host defense. It usually occurs in conjunction with other conditions that are associated with chronic bronchial inflammation like atelectasis, aspiration of a foreign body, infection, cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis. Airway damage leads to bronchospasm and colonization by bacteria that promote further lung damage, inhibit ciliary function, and produce copious purulent mucus. Hypoxia develops as a result of ventilation-perfusion abnormalities. The primary clinical indication is is chronic productive cough lasting for months or years and is commonly associated with foul-smelling purulent sputum. Clubbing of the fingers, hemoptysis, dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, and fatigue are also common. Bronchiectasis is treated with antibiotics, bronchodilators, anti-inflammatory drugs, chest physiotherapy, and supplemental oxygen with some individuals requiring surgery and possibly lung transplants (p. 1172). This is a permanent condition in which the inflammatory process is progressive and results in a cycle of worsening pulmonary damage (King, 2019, p. 412).
King P. T. (2019). The pathophysiology of bronchiectasis. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 4, 411–419. https://doi.org/10.2147/copd.s6133
McCance, S.H. K. (2018). Pathophysiology (8th Edition). Elsevier Health Sciences (US). https://digitalbookshelf.southuniversity.edu/books/9780323583473