1. What does the color of a patient’s urine tell about how concentrated or dilute it is? How does urine color/concentration compare to the urine specific gravity at the same time?
  2. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates the formation of concentrated or dilute urine. When and under what circumstances does a body secrete its highest amount of ADH? Explain your answer.
  3. Proteinuria (protein in the urine) after intense exercise is physiologically normal. However, protein is typically not present in urine at other times. Why is that?
  4. How do the kidneys work to maintain normal pH of the blood? Explain the relationship between the kidneys, lungs, and blood pH homeostasis.

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